Green nanoparticles

Green nanotechnology uses living cells to create green nanoparticles in a safe, eco-friendly, and cost-effective way. These nanoparticles are sized between 1 to 100 nm. They play important roles in different fields.

Green Nanoparticle Synthesis

Green nanotechnology focuses on creating nanoparticles using living cells through biological methods. Plants, rich in stabilizing and reducing agents, are ideal sources for this process.

Types of Green Synthesis

  • Extracellular Synthesis: Involves the use of plant extracts outside the cell.
  • Intracellular Synthesis: Involves the use of plant cells or tissues.
  • Phytochemicals: Utilize plant-based chemicals for nanoparticle synthesis.

Benefits of Green Synthesis

Green synthesis methods are:

  • Eco-friendly: Minimizes environmental impact.
  • Non-toxic: Safe for use in various applications.
  • Cost-effective: Reduces production costs.
  • Stable: Provides more stable green nanoparticles compared to other methods.

Applications of Green-Synthesized Nanoparticles

Biomedical Applications

  • Diagnostics: Used in medical imaging and disease detection.
  • Wound Healing: Promotes faster healing processes.
  • Immunotherapy: Enhances immune responses for treating diseases.
  • Biosensing: Used in sensors to detect biological changes.

Environmental Applications

  • Pollution Treatment: Removes contaminants from water and soil.
  • Dye Degradation: Breaks down harmful dyes in wastewater.
  • Water Purification: Filters out pollutants to provide clean water.

Other Applications

  • Fuel and Energy: Improves efficiency in energy storage and conversion.
  • Electronics: Used in the development of nano-devices.
  • Agriculture: Enhances plant growth and protects crops from pests.

Key Points on Specific Nanoparticles

Gold Nanoparticles: These are widely used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility.

  • They play a significant role in drug delivery systems, cancer treatment, and diagnostic imaging.
  • Gold nanoparticles are also utilized in electronic devices and environmental sensing.
  • Their unique optical properties make them valuable in photothermal therapy and biosensing technologies.

Copper Oxide Nanoparticles: Effective in environmental remediation, catalysis, and energy storage.

Selenium Nanoparticles: Useful in antioxidant, anticancer activities, and solar cells.

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: Known for their antidiabetic, antibacterial, and dye degradation properties.

Silver Chloride Nanoparticles: Applied in environmental and biomedical fields.

Factors Influencing Synthesis

Green synthesis of nanoparticles is a sustainable, safe, and cost-effective method. It holds great potential for various industries. This includes biomedical, environmental, and technological fields. Today it is a preferred choice for nanoparticle production. Here, we provide a brief on some factors influencing the synthesis of these gold particles.

  • Temperature: Controls the size and shape of nanoparticles.
  • pH: Affects the number and structure of nucleation centers.
  • Reaction Time: Determines the yield and form of synthesized nanoparticles.

Green Synthesis of Silver (Ag) Nanoparticles and Their Uses

Plants Used for Silver Nanoparticles

Many plants like roots, stems, leaves, and seeds are used to make silver nanoparticles. For example:

  • French tamarisk (Tamarix gallica)
  • Butterfly tree (Bauhinia purpurea)
  • Asian spider flower (Cleome viscosa)

These plants help turn silver nitrate into metallic silver. The resulting nanoparticles are often spherical and can range from 3 to 23.7 nanometers in size.

Applications in Medicine

Silver nanoparticles are used widely in medicine due to their unique properties:

  • Antibacterial: Effective against bacteria like E. coli and S. aureus.
  • Antiviral: Can fight viruses such as HIV and influenza.
  • Cancer Treatment: Help in cancer therapy by targeting and killing cancer cells.
  • Wound Healing: Used in bandages and dressings to promote healing and prevent infections.

Shapes and Sizes Matters a Lot

The effectiveness of these green nanoparticles can vary based on their size and shape:

  • Spherical: Common and effective.
  • Rod-shaped: Different interactions with microbes.
  • Triangular: Strong antibacterial properties due to high surface area.

Green Synthesis of Gold (Au) Nanoparticles and Their Uses

Plants Used for Gold Nanoparticles

Several plants help in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles:

  • Pummelo (Citrus maxima)
  • Indian long pepper (Piper longum)
  • Onion (Allium cepa)

These small-sized gold particles are non-toxic and biocompatible, making them ideal for medical use.

Applications in Medicine

Gold nanoparticles have various medical uses:

  • Cancer Treatment: Used in targeted drug delivery and imaging.
  • Diagnostics: Help in detecting diseases like heart conditions and infections.
  • Antiviral: Effective against viruses such as dengue and HIV.
  • Antimicrobial: Used to treat infections.

Unique Properties

  • Gold nanoparticles can vary in size, shape, and aspect ratio. They can be 1 nm and you can even get 40nm gold nanoparticles. All this influences their effectiveness in different applications.
  • They are known for their stability.
  • They have the ability to bond with other molecules.

Green Synthesis of Iron (Fe) Nanoparticles and Their Uses

Plants Used for Iron Nanoparticles

Various plants are used for synthesizing iron nanoparticles:

  • Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
  • Damask rose (Rosa damascene)
  • Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)
  • Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
  • Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica)

These iron nanoparticles have sizes ranging from 20 to 60 nanometers and are used in various environmental and medical applications.

Environmental Applications

Iron nanoparticles are used in:

  • Water Treatment: Removing heavy metals like chromium and cadmium.
  • Soil Remediation: Cleaning polluted soil by breaking down harmful substances.
  • Waste Management: Reducing waste and improving resource utilization.

Medical Applications

In medicine, iron nanoparticles are used for:

  • Cancer Treatment: Targeting and killing cancer cells.
  • Drug Delivery: Efficiently delivering drugs to specific parts of the body.
  • Antioxidant: Acting as antioxidants to protect cells from damage.

Green Synthesis of Selenium (Se) Nanoparticles and Their Uses

Plants Used for Selenium Nanoparticles

Selenium nanoparticles can be synthesized using plants like:

  • Garlic (Allium sativum)
  • Horseshoe geranium (Pelargonium zonale)
  • Bombay ebony (Diospyros montana)

These nanoparticles are non-toxic and cost-effective to produce.

Applications in Medicine

Selenium nanoparticles are used for:

  • Cancer Treatment: Effective against various cancer cells.
  • Antimicrobial: Fighting bacterial and fungal infections.
  • Antioxidant: Protecting cells from oxidative damage.
  • Immune System Support: Enhancing the body’s immune response.

Environmental Applications

Selenium nanoparticles are also used to:

  • Remove Heavy Metals:
  • Cleaning contaminated soil and water.
  • Increase Food Shelf Life:
  • Acting as preservatives to keep food fresh longer.

Green Synthesis of Copper (Cu) Nanoparticles and Their Uses

Plants Used for Copper Nanoparticles

Plants used to synthesize copper nanoparticles are

  • Fire lily (Gloriosa superba L.)
  • Common grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Nerium (Nerium oleander)
  • Jackfruit-Champa (Artabotrys odoratissimus)

Applications in Medicine

Copper nanoparticles have several medical uses:

  • Antibacterial: Killing harmful bacteria.
  • Antifungal: Effective against fungal infections.
  • Antiviral: Fighting viruses.

Environmental Applications

Copper nanoparticles help in:

  • Waste Management: Treating waste and pollutants.
  • Water Purification: Cleaning water by removing contaminants.


Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts is an eco-friendly and cost-effective method. These have a wide range of applications in different industries. This makes them very useful in modern science and industry. For more information on 40nm gold nanoparticles, and others, connect with us at Torskal Nanoscience.